A somewhat different technique to use the (approximately) correct metric, without direct computation of the Hessian, is the method of Conjugate Gradients ( CG), where E is iteratively minimized within separate one-dimensional subspaces of -space (see e.g. ref. ). The updating hence reads
where the step length is chosen, by employing a line search, such that E is minimized along the direction d. The Hessian metric is taken into account by making the minimization directions d conjugate to each other such that
By using the negative gradient of E for the initial direction d it is possible to get all the subsequent conjugate directions, without ever actually computing the Hessian, through
where is chosen such that eq. () is fulfilled. This technique is exact if E is a quadratic form and if all the minimizations within the subspaces are exact. However, since this is never the case, several methods have been suggested for how to compute the subsequent search directions. In JETNET 3.0 we have implemented
plus a fourth one, Shanno, which is too complicated to include here. We refer the reader to  and  for a thorough discussion on these matters.
The line search part of CG minimization can be tricky and there exists a variant, Scaled Conjugate Gradient ( SCG) , that avoids the line search by estimating the minimization step through
where is a fudge factor to make the denominator positive and s is a difference approximation of H d. This SCG method is usually faster than normal CG.